Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008 Nov;392(6):1093-108. doi: 10.1007/s00216-008-2291-6. Epub 2008 Aug 10.


We investigated the elimination routes for the 200 drugs that are sold most often by prescription count in the United States. The majority (78%) of the hepatically cleared drugs were found to be subject to oxidative metabolism via cytochromes P450 of the families 1, 2 and 3, with major contributions from CYP3A4/5 (37% of drugs) followed by CYP2C9 (17%), CYP2D6 (15%), CYP2C19 (10%), CYP1A2 (9%), CYP2C8 (6%), and CYP2B6 (4%). Clinically well-established polymorphic CYPs (i.e., CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) were involved in the metabolism of approximately half of those drugs, including (in particular) NSAIDs metabolized mainly by CYP2C9, proton-pump inhibitors metabolized by CYP2C19, and beta blockers and several antipsychotics and antidepressants metabolized by CYP2D6. In this review, we provide an up-to-date summary of the functional polymorphisms and aspects of the functional genomics of the major human drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s, as well as their clinical significance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Biotransformation
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / classification
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
  • Drug Design
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Pharmacogenetics / methods*
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Psychotropic Drugs / pharmacology
  • Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods*


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Psychotropic Drugs
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System