Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and casein kinases 1 (CK1) are involved in the two key molecular features of Alzheimer's disease, production of amyloid-beta peptides (extracellular plaques) and hyper-phosphorylation of Tau (intracellular neurofibrillary tangles). A series of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines, structurally related to the CDK inhibitor roscovitine, have been synthesized. They mainly differ by the substituent on the C-6 position. These compounds were screened for kinase inhibitory activities and antiproliferative effects. Several biaryl derivatives displayed potent inhibition of both CDKs and CK1. In particular, derivative 13a was a potent inhibitor of CDK1/cyclin B (IC 50: 220 nM), CDK5/p25 (IC 50: 80 nM), and CK1 (IC 50: 14 nM). Modeling of these molecules into the ATP-binding pocket of CK1delta provided a rationale for the increased selectivity toward this kinase. 13a was able to prevent the CK1-dependent production of amyloid-beta in a cell model. CDK/CK1 dual-specificity inhibitors may have important applications in Alzheimer's disease and cancers.