Development of a 384-well colorimetric assay to quantify hydrogen peroxide generated by the redox cycling of compounds in the presence of reducing agents

Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2008 Aug;6(4):505-18. doi: 10.1089/adt.2008.151.


We report here the development and optimization of a simple 384-well colorimetric assay to measure H(2)O(2) generated by the redox cycling of compounds incubated with reducing agents in high-throughput screening (HTS) assay buffers. The phenol red-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) assay readily detected H(2)O(2) either added exogenously or generated by the redox cycling of compounds in dithiothreitol (DTT). The generation of H(2)O(2) was dependent on the concentration of both the compound and DTT and was abolished by catalase. Although both DTT and tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine sustain the redox cycling generation of H(2)O(2) by a model quinolinedione, 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethylamino)-quinoline-5,8-dione (NSC 663284; DA3003-1), other reducing agents such as beta-mercaptoethanol, glutathione, and cysteine do not. The assay is compatible with HTS. Once terminated, the assay signal was stable for at least 5 h, allowing for a reasonable throughput. The assay tolerated up to 20% dimethyl sulfoxide, allowing a wide range of compound concentrations to be tested. The assay signal window was robust and reproducible with average Z-factors of > or =0.8, and the redox cycling generation of H(2)O(2) by DA3003-1 in DTT exhibited an average 50% effective concentration of 0.830 +/- 0.068 microM. Five of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) 1 inhibitors identified in an HTS were shown to generate H(2)O(2) in the presence of DTT, and their inhibition of MKP-1 activity was shown to be time dependent and was abolished or significantly reduced by either 100 U of catalase or by higher DTT levels. A cross-target query of the PubChem database with three structurally related pyrimidotriazinediones revealed active flags in 36-39% of the primary screening assays. Activity was confirmed against a number of targets containing active site cysteines, including protein tyrosine phosphatases, cathepsins, and caspases, as well as a number of cellular cytotoxicity assays. Rather than utilize resources to conduct a hit characterization effort involving several secondary assays, the phenol red-HRP assay provides a simple, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive method to identify compounds that redox cycle in DTT or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine to produce H(2)O(2) that may indirectly modulate target activity and represent promiscuous false-positives from a primary screen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Catalase / pharmacology
  • Colorimetry / instrumentation
  • Colorimetry / methods*
  • Coloring Agents
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / instrumentation
  • Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 / analysis
  • Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 / metabolism
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / analysis*
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Nanotechnology
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phenolsulfonphthalein
  • Reducing Agents / chemistry*


  • Coloring Agents
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Reducing Agents
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Catalase
  • DUSP1 protein, human
  • Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1
  • Phenolsulfonphthalein