Detection of dental fluorosis-associated quantitative trait Loci on mouse chromosomes 2 and 11

Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;189(1-4):212-8. doi: 10.1159/000151383. Epub 2008 Aug 14.


Systemic exposure to greater than optimal fluoride (F) can lead to dental fluorosis (DF). Parental A/J (DF-susceptible) and 129P3/J (DF-resistant) inbred mice were used for histological studies and to generate F2 progeny. Mice were treated with 0 or 50 ppm F in their drinking water for 60 days. A clinical criterion (modified Thylstrup and Fejerskov categorical scale) was used to assess the severity of DF for each individual F2 animal. Parental strains were subjected to histological examination of maturing enamel. F treatment resulted in accumulation of amelogenins in the maturing enamel of A/J mice. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection was performed using phenotypic extreme F2 animals genotyped for 354 single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers distributed throughout the mouse genome followed by chi(2) analysis. Significant evidence of association was observed on chromosomes 2 and 11 for a series of consecutive markers (p < 0.0001). Further analyses were performed to examine whether the phenotypic effects were found in both male and female F2 mice or whether there was evidence for gender-specific effects. Analyses performed using the markers on chromosomes 2 and 11 which were significant in the mixed-gender mice were also significant when analyses were limited to only the male or female mice. The QTL detected on chromosomes 2 and 11 which influence the variation in response to fluorosis have their effect in mice of both genders. Finally, the QTL in both chromosomes appear to have an additive effect.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amelogenin / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Chromosomes, Mammalian / genetics*
  • Dental Enamel / metabolism
  • Dental Enamel / pathology
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Female
  • Fluorosis, Dental / genetics*
  • Genome
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Incisor / metabolism
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Phenotype
  • Quantitative Trait Loci / genetics*
  • Sex Characteristics


  • Amelogenin