Regulation of B cell proliferation and differentiation by retinoic acid

Semin Immunol. 2009 Feb;21(1):36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2008.06.005. Epub 2008 Aug 13.


Vitamin A protects against development of infectious diseases, and B cells are important players in this process. Keys to the protective role of retinoic acid (RA) against infections appear to be its ability to enhance antibody responses against T-cell dependent and independent type 2 antigens, as well as to locally stimulate IgA production in mucosal tissues. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms involved in RA-mediated regulation of proliferation and differentiation of B cells not only helps us to understand how RA differentially regulates subsets of B cells, but might also lead to more targeted treatment of selected immune disorders and B cell malignancies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Tretinoin / immunology
  • Tretinoin / metabolism*
  • Vitamin A / immunology
  • Vitamin A / metabolism*


  • Cytokines
  • Vitamin A
  • Tretinoin