The aim of the present study was to evaluate application customs of neuromuscular monitoring in hospitals and private practice. Of the 3,260 questionnaires sent out, 2,182 could be analyzed. Of these 54% were from anaesthetists in private practice, 41% from heads of hospital anaesthesia departments and 5% from heads of level 1 hospital anaesthesia departments. In 12.1% of the hospital departments and 66.7% of private practices, no neuromuscular monitoring was available at all. In both hospital departments and private practices, clinical signs were the most often applied criteria for timing of reinjection of myorelaxants as well as for evaluation of neuromuscular recovery.