The Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) conducted the first nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens during the period from January to August 2006. With the cooperation of 32 medical institutions throughout Japan, a total of 924 strains belonging to seven clinically relevant bacterial species were collected from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 887 evaluable strains (205 Staphylococcus aureus, 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 9 Streptococcus pyogenes, 165 Haemophilus influenzae, 91 Moraxella catarrhalis, 74 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 143 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) to 42 antibacterial agents was conducted at the Central Laboratory of the Research Center for Anti-infective Drugs of the Kitasato Institute, according to recommendations issued by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The antibacterial agents employed were 25 beta-lactams, three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including one azalide and one ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, five fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone. The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 63.4%, and the incidences of penicillin-intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) were 35.0% and 4.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.2% of the strains were found to be beta-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 29.1% to be beta-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 4.8% to be beta-lactamaseproducing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. The incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae was 2.7% (2 of 74 strains). Three (2.1%) of the 143 P. aeruginosa strains were found to be metallo-beta-lactamaseproducing, including 1 (0.7%) multidrug-resistant strain. Through the nationwide surveillance, we obtained fundamental antimicrobial susceptibility data of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens in adult RTI to various antibacterial agents. These data will be a useful reference for future periodic surveillance studies, as well as for investigations to control antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.