Nutritional intervention in patients with periodontal disease: clinical, immunological and microbiological variables during 12 months

Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar;101(6):879-85. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508047776. Epub 2008 Aug 20.


The role of nutrition in onset, progression and treatment of periodontitis has not been thoroughly evaluated. In the present prospective clinical study, we investigated the influence of a nutritional intervention on changes in clinical, microbiological and immunological periodontal variables during a period of 12 months in patients with the metabolic syndrome and chronic periodontitis. Twenty female subjects with the metabolic syndrome and mild to moderate chronic periodontitis participated in a guided nutritional intervention programme. Examinations were assessed before, and at 2 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after intervention. Clinical measurements included probing depth, Löe and Silness gingival index and Quigley-Hein plaque index. In gingival crevicular fluid, periodontopathogens, levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 as well as the activity of granulocyte elastase were determined. In stimulated saliva, antioxidative and oxidative variables were measured. After 12 months the following significant changes could be observed: reduction of clinical probing depth (2.40 v. 2.20 mm; P < 0.001), reduction of gingival inflammation (gingival index 1.13 v. 0.9; P < 0.001), reduced concentrations of IL-1beta (4.63 v. 1.10 pg/ml per site; P < 0.001) as well as IL-6 (1.85 v. 0.34 pg/ml per site; P = 0.022) in gingival crevicular fluid. Bacterial counts in gingival crevicular fluid as well as oxidative and antioxidative variables in saliva showed no significant changes. Only salivary catalase showed a tendency to lower values. These findings indicate that in patients with the metabolic syndrome wholesome nutrition might reduce inflammatory variables of periodontal disease and promote periodontal health.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bacteroidaceae Infections / diet therapy
  • Bacteroidaceae Infections / immunology
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Catalase / analysis
  • Chronic Periodontitis / diet therapy*
  • Chronic Periodontitis / immunology
  • Chronic Periodontitis / microbiology
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / immunology
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / microbiology
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / analysis
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diet therapy
  • Metabolic Syndrome / immunology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / microbiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Therapy / methods*
  • Periodontal Index
  • Peroxidase / analysis
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Saliva / chemistry


  • Biomarkers
  • Catalase
  • Peroxidase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase