Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications

Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008 Jul;36(4):502-12. doi: 10.1177/0310057X0803600404.


Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / adverse effects
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology*
  • Bacteremia / microbiology
  • Bacteremia / prevention & control
  • Catheterization / adverse effects
  • Catheterization / methods
  • Chlorhexidine / adverse effects
  • Chlorhexidine / pharmacology*
  • Cross Infection / prevention & control
  • Dermatomycoses / prevention & control
  • Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology*
  • Equipment Contamination / prevention & control
  • Hand Disinfection / methods
  • Humans
  • Iodine / pharmacology
  • Oral Hygiene / methods
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local
  • Iodine
  • Chlorhexidine