Sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy: results of the first randomized treat-to-target study

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008 Oct;10(5):377-83. doi: 10.1089/dia.2008.0068.


Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of a device that combines an insulin pump with real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), compared to using an insulin pump with standard blood glucose monitoring systems.

Methods: This 6-month, randomized, multicenter, treat-to-target study enrolled 146 subjects treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion between the ages of 12 and 72 years with type 1 diabetes and initial A1C levels of >or=7.5%. Subjects were randomized to pump therapy with real-time CGM (sensor group [SG]) or to pump therapy and self-monitoring of blood glucose only (control group [CG]). Clinical effectiveness and safety were evaluated.

Results: A1C levels decreased (P<0.001) from baseline (8.44+/-0.70%) in both groups (SG, -0.71+/-0.71%; CG, -0.56+/-0.072%); however, between-group differences did not achieve significance. SG subjects showed no change in mean hypoglycemia area under the curve (AUC), whereas CG subjects showed an increase (P=0.001) in hypoglycemia AUC during the blinded periods of the study. The between-group difference in hypoglycemia AUC was significant (P<0.0002). Greater than 60% sensor utilization was associated with A1C reduction (P=0.0456). Fourteen severe hypoglycemic events occurred (11 in the SG group and three in the CG group, P=0.04).

Conclusions: A1C reduction was no different between the two groups. Subjects in the CG group had increased hypoglycemia AUC and number of events during blinded CGM use; however, there was no increase in hypoglycemia AUC or number of events in the SG group. Subjects with greater sensor utilization showed a greater improvement in A1C levels.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / blood
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemia / blood
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Infusion Systems* / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin