Treatment predictors are important tools for the management of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV, HCV) infection. In chronic hepatitis B, several pretreatment parameters have been identified for prediction of virologic response to interferon alfa-based antiviral therapies or treatment with polymerase inhibitors. In interferon alfa and pegylated interferon alfa-treated patients, low baseline HBV DNA concentrations, HBV genotype A (B), and high baseline ALT levels are significantly associated with treatment response. In patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues, low baseline HBV DNA but not viral genotype is positively associated with virologic response. During treatment the best predictor of response is HBV DNA kinetics. Early viral suppression is associated with favourable virologic response and reduced risk for subsequent resistance mutations. For the current standard treatment with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C, infection with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, baseline viral load below 400,000-800,000 IU/ml, Asian and Caucasian ethnicity, younger age, low GGT levels, absence of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, and absence of steatosis in the liver have been identified as independent pretreatment predictors of a sustained virologic response. After initiation of treatment, initial viral decline with undetectable HCV-RNA at week 4 of therapy (RVR) is the best predictor of sustained virologic response independent of HCV genotype.