In contrast to the detailed understanding we have for the regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in embryos, similar insights into postnatal muscle growth and regeneration are largely inferential or do not directly address gene regulatory mechanisms. Muscle stem cells (satellite cells) are chiefly responsible for providing new muscle during postnatal and adult life. The purpose of this study was to determine the role that the myogenic basic helix-loop-helix regulatory factor myogenin has in postnatal muscle growth and adult muscle stem cell gene expression. We found that myogenin is absolutely required for skeletal muscle development and survival until birth, but it is dispensable for postnatal life. However, Myog deletion after birth led to reduced body size implying a role for myogenin in regulating body homeostasis. Despite a lack of skeletal muscle defects in Myog-deleted mice during postnatal life and the efficient differentiation of cultured Myog-deleted adult muscle stem cells, the loss of myogenin profoundly altered the pattern of gene expression in cultured muscle stem cells and adult skeletal muscle. Remarkably, these changes in gene expression were distinct from those found in Myog-null embryonic skeletal muscle, indicating that myogenin has separate functions during postnatal life.