The hydrocephalic patient is at risk throughout life of developing complications that may be severe or even fatal. The neurological, developmental, social and occupational outcome is affected by the sequelae of the initial disease and the consequences of intracranial hypertension, but also by imaginary obstacles. Unless proved otherwise, the patient with a shunt must be considered shunt-dependent; shunt independence is rare and must be proved following a rigorous protocol. The hydrocephalic patient should therefore be followed regularly and for life in neurosurgery to screen for and prevent complications as much as possible. Follow-up also allows patient education and coordination by the neurosurgeon and other specialists such as the neurologist and the physical therapist. Organizing the follow-up of the hydrocephalic patient into adulthood is the responsibility of the neurosurgeon in charge; the modalities of this follow-up will vary depending on local conditions. The patient should be educated on the need for this follow-up and prepared for this transition long before it occurs.