The proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) is elevated in obese individuals and rodents and it is implicated in impaired insulin secretion, decreased cell proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. In this study we describe the therapeutic effects by an IL-1beta antibody to improve glucose control in hyperglycemic mice with diet-induced obesity. After 13 weeks of treatment the IL-1beta antibody treated group showed reduced glycated hemoglobin (( *)P=0.049), reduced serum levels of proinsulin (( *)P=0.015), reduced levels of insulin and smaller islet size (( *)P=1.65E-13) relative to the control antibody treated group. Neutralization of IL-1beta also significantly reduced serum amyloid A (SAA) which is an indicator of inflammation-induced acute phase response (( *)P=0.024). While there was no improvement of obesity, a significant improvement of glycemic control and of beta cell function is achieved by this pharmacological treatment which may slow/prevent disease progression in Type 2 Diabetes.