This report presents a complex analysis of changes proceeding in the gut, blood and internal organs of rats with induced oxidative stress, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia after dietary supplementation with an extract from black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruit, that is a condensed source of polyphenols (714 mg/g), especially anthocyanin glycosides (56.6%). The disturbances mimicking those observed in metabolic syndrome were induced by a high-fructose diet and simultaneous single injection of streptozotocin (20 mg/kg). Dietary supplementation with the chokeberry fruit extract (0.2%) decreased activity of maltase and sucrase as well as increased activity of lactase in the mucosa of the small intestine. Its ingestion led also to the improvement of antioxidant status, especially, the concentration of a lipid peroxidation indicator (TBARS) in organ tissues (liver, kidney and lung) was normalized; some cholesterol-lowering and distinct hypoglycemic actions were also observed. The mechanism of glucose reduction is likely to be multifactorial, and we suggest the factors related with the decreased activity of mucosal disaccharidases important for further investigation. In conclusion, chokeberry fruit derivatives may act as a promising supplementary therapeutic option in the prevention and treatment of disorders occurring in metabolic syndrome, as well as their complications.