Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 38 Suppl 2, 1-125

Review of the Toxicology of Chlorpyrifos With an Emphasis on Human Exposure and Neurodevelopment

Affiliations
Review

Review of the Toxicology of Chlorpyrifos With an Emphasis on Human Exposure and Neurodevelopment

David L Eaton et al. Crit Rev Toxicol.

Abstract

This review examines the large body of toxicological and epidemiological information on human exposures to chlorpyrifos, with an emphasis on the controversial potential for chlorpyrifos to induce neurodevelopmental effects at low doses. The results of this review demonstrate that the use of urinary 3,5,6-trichlorpyridinol (TCPy), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos as a biomarker of nonoccupational exposure is problematic and may overestimate nonoccupational exposures to chlorpyrifos by 10-to 20-fold because of the widespread presence of both TCPy and chlorpyrifos-methyl in the food supply. Current "background" (nonoccupational) levels of exposure to chlorpyrifos are several orders of magnitude lower than those required to inhibit plasma cholinesterase activity, which is a more sensitive target than nervous system cholinesterase. However, several in vitro studies have identified putative neurodevelopmental mechanisms that are altered at concentrations of chlorpyrifos below those that inhibit cholinesterases. Although one human cohort study reported an association between maternal and cord blood chlorpyrifos levels and several measures of neurodevelopment, two other cohort studies that utilized urinary TCPy as a surrogate for chlorpyrifos exposure did not demonstrate an association. Although the weight of the scientific evidence demonstrates that current levels of chlorpyrifos exposure will not have any adverse effects on neurodevelopment that might result from inhibition of nervous system cholinesterases, several recent studies propose alternative mechanisms. Thus, further in vivo investigation on neurodevelopment in an appropriate animal model is needed; additional epidemiological studies may be warranted if a suitable, chlorpyrifos-exposed cohort can be identified and more rigorous measures of exposure are utilized.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 105 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback