Quality of proteins depends on their composition in essential amino acids and on the availability of amino acids. Great interest has been shown in the role played by hydrolysates of proteins in clinical diets for pathologies with reduced absorptive capacity and food allergies caused by intact protein epitopes. Milk proteins are the most important protein source used in the development of protein hydrolysates designed for nutritional support of patients. Several studies have shown that casein and whey hydrolysates have a composition in amino acids equivalent to that in native milk proteins and that digestibility is similar or better. Among plant proteins, soy is the major source of hydrolysates. Soy hydrolysates are also used in infant formulas. Plant hydrolysates have good functional properties and a nutritional quality similar to that of starting material. Some technical improvements in production of hydrolysates, particularly for plants, are nevertheless necessary to improve product palatability.