Objective: To probe into the physical changes on the head and face of Chinese adults, find the representative indexes and provide references for head-face products design especially in the field of labor protection.
Methods: The ISO7250-1996 and GB/T5703-99 Basic Human Body Measurements for Technological Design was used. Twenty items of head-face referential parameters and 4 items of body indexes (height, weight, waist circumference and buttock circumference) were measured by using sliding caliper, spreading caliper and pupillometer. The populations were sampled by age, gender and region and their influences on the head and face dimensions were statistically analyzed. By studying the relationship between these parameters with correlation and cluster analysis, the representative indexes of head and face dimensions were concluded.
Results: 3000 objectives (2026 men and 974 women) were involved in this survey. The results enunciated that the values of the items in male were larger than those in female. For example, the mean values of face length, face width, jaw width, lip length and nose protrusion were 117.0, 147.6, 118.5, 51.7, 18.7 mm for male and 109.7, 140.1, 114.5, 49.3, 17.7 mm for female. The regional disparity and obesity were significant factors. The sizes of head and face of north-eastern population were significantly bigger than those of south-western population except of maximum length of head, the length of lip and face configuration length. The sizes of head and face of obesity population were significantly bigger than those of non-obesity population (P < 0.01). By the cluster analysis, five representative indexes (face length, face width, jaw width, lip length and nose protrusion) were obtained. Further correction analysis suggested that these indexes could well represent the head-face dimensions.
Conclusion: The influence of gender, region and obesity on the head-face dimensions is significant. The age is not a significant influential factor. Five representative indexes (face length, face width, jaw width, lip length and nose protrusion) are obtained to provide foundation in the standard design of head-face products.