Treatment with imatinib is very effective in Bcr-Abl positive leukemia. However, development of resistance to this drug is a common phenomenon in late stage disease. The Bcr-Abl protein localizes to the cytoplasm in transformed cells but can enter the nucleus upon treatment with imatinib. Using leptomycin B, a nuclear export blocker, it has been shown that reactivated nuclear Bcr-Abl kinase activity can induce cell death, thus presenting an interesting potential treatment option for imatinib resistant disease. Here we show that the combination of imatinib and leptomycin B effectively induces cell death in imatinib-resistant Ba/F3 cells which display Bcr-Abl amplification or signs of clonal evolution. However, no such synergism is observed in imatinib-resistant Ba/F3 cells carrying the T315I mutation of Bcr-Abl or those which have lost Bcr-Abl expression. Thus, a partial inhibition of Bcr-Abl by imatinib is required for this approach in agreement with the proposed mode of action.