[Exercise-induced anaphylaxis]

Recenti Prog Med. 2008 Jul-Aug;99(7-8):395-400.
[Article in Italian]


Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) was defined for the first time in 1980. EIA is associated with different kind of exercise, although jogging is the most frequently reported. The clinical manifestations progress from itching, erythema and urticaria to some combination of cutaneous angioedema, gastrointestinal and laryngeal symptoms and signs of angioedema and vascular collapse. Mast cell participation in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been proved by the finding of an elevated serum histamine level during experimentally-induced attacks and by cutaneous degranulation of mast cells with elevated serum tryptase after attacks. As predisposing factors of EIA, a specific or even aspecific sensitivity to food has been reported and such cases are called "food-dependent EIA". Many foods are implicated but particularly wheat, vegetables, crustacean. Another precipitating factor includes drugs intake (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), climate variations and menstrual cycle factors. Treatment of an attack should include all the manoeuvres efficacious in the management of conventional anaphylactic syndrome, including the administration of epinephrine and antihistamines. Prevention of the attacks may be achieved with the interruption of the exercise at the appearance of the first premonitory symptoms. To prevent the onset of EIA it is also suitable to delay the exercise practice after at least 4-6 hours from the swallowing of food.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Adrenergic Agonists / administration & dosage
  • Adrenergic Agonists / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Anaphylaxis / diagnosis
  • Anaphylaxis / epidemiology
  • Anaphylaxis / etiology*
  • Anaphylaxis / prevention & control
  • Anaphylaxis / therapy
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Climate
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Epinephrine / administration & dosage
  • Epinephrine / therapeutic use
  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Jogging
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Adrenergic Agonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Epinephrine