Lysophospholipid activation of G protein-coupled receptors

Subcell Biochem. 2008;49:269-97. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8831-5_10.

Abstract

One of the major lipid biology discoveries in last decade was the broad range of physiological activities of lysophospholipids that have been attributed to the actions of lysophospholipid receptors. The most well characterized lysophospholipids are lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Documented cellular effects of these lipid mediators include growth-factor-like effects on cells, such as proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. The mechanisms for these actions are attributed to a growing family of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Their pathophysiological actions include immune modulation, neuropathic pain modulation, platelet aggregation, wound healing, vasopressor activity, and angiogenesis. Here we provide a brief introduction to receptor-mediated lysophospholipid signaling and physiology, and then discuss potential therapeutic roles in human diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Asthma / physiopathology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Gap Junctions / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / physiology
  • Lysophospholipids / physiology*
  • Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / agonists
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / agonists
  • Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Sphingosine / physiology

Substances

  • Immunologic Factors
  • Lysophospholipids
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Receptors, Lysosphingolipid
  • sphingosine 1-phosphate
  • Sphingosine
  • lysophosphatidic acid