The Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II): psychometric properties in Icelandic student and patient populations

Nord J Psychiatry. 2008;62(5):360-5. doi: 10.1080/08039480801962681.


The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of depression in both research and clinical practice. The Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II) is the most recent version of the BDI. The objective of the present study was to assess the psychometric foundations of the Icelandic translation of the BDI-II, adding to its international knowledge base. Participants were in total 1454, 1206 students and 248 outpatient-clinic patients. All students completed the BDI-II and a subgroup (n=142) completed additional measures of anxiety and depression. The Mini-International Psychiatric Interview (MINI) and the BDI-II were administrated to the patients. Convergent and divergent validity of the BDI-II were supported. It discriminated satisfactorily between patients diagnosed and those not diagnosed with major depression. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed small differences between various factor models of the BDI-II, derived from previous studies. However, a model of three first-order factors (cognitive-affective-somatic) and one second-order factor (general depression) offered an acceptable description of the item covariance structure for the BDI-II in both samples. It is concluded that the psychometric properties of the Icelandic version of the BDI-II are supported in patient and student populations.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis
  • Anxiety Disorders / epidemiology
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Depression / diagnosis
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iceland / epidemiology
  • Interview, Psychological / methods
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Patients / psychology*
  • Patients / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics
  • ROC Curve
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Students / psychology*
  • Students / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult