Application of new therapies in Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: animal models and translation to human clinical trials

Thyroid. 2008 Sep;18(9):973-81. doi: 10.1089/thy.2007.0406.


Most current approaches for treating Graves' disease are based essentially upon regimes developed nearly 50 years ago. Moreover, therapeutic approaches for complications such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and dermopathy are singularly dependent on conventional approaches of nonspecific immunosuppression. The recent development of an induced model of experimental Graves' disease, although incomplete as it lacks the extrathyroidal manifestations, provided opportunities to investigate immune intervention strategies, including influence upon the autoreactive B and T cell players in the autoimmune process. These major advances are generating new possibilities for therapeutic interventions for patients with Graves' disease and TAO.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Graves Disease / immunology*
  • Graves Disease / therapy*
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy / immunology*
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immune System
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Receptors, Thyrotropin / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / immunology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Receptors, Thyrotropin