Objective: To compare the oncologic outcomes of women who underwent a fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy (RT) to those who underwent a radical hysterectomy (RH) for stage IB1 cervical carcinoma.
Methods: We performed a case-control study of all patients with stage IB1 cervical carcinoma who underwent a vaginal or abdominal RT between 11/01 and 6/07. The control group consisted of patients with stage IB1 disease who underwent an RH between 11/91 and 6/07 and who would be considered candidates for fertility-sparing surgery. Information was extracted from a prospectively acquired database. Recurrence-free and disease-specific survival (RFS and DSS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared with the log-rank test where indicated. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression method.
Results: Forty stage IB1 patients underwent an RT and 110 patients underwent an RH. There were no statistical differences between the two groups for the following prognostic variables: histology, median number of lymph nodes removed, node positive rate, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI), or deep stromal invasion (DSI). The median follow-up for the entire group was 44 months. The 5-year RFS rate was 96% (for the RT group compared to 86% for the RH group (P=NS). On multivariate analysis in this group of stage IB1 lesions, tumor size <2 cm was not an independent predictor of outcome, but both LVSI and DSI retained independent predictive value (P=0.033 and 0.005, respectively).
Conclusion: For selected patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer, fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy appears to have a similar oncologic outcome to radical hysterectomy. LVSI and DSI appear to be more valuable predictors of outcome than tumor diameter in this subgroup of patients.