Oncogenic activation of tyrosine kinase signaling pathway is recurrent in human leukemia. To gain insight into the oncogenic process leading to acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), we performed sequence analyses of a subset of oncogenes known to be activated in human myeloid and myeloproliferative disorders. In a series of human AMKL samples from both Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome patients, mutations were identified within KIT, FLT3, JAK2, JAK3, and MPL genes, with a higher frequency in DS than in non-DS patients. The novel mutations were analyzed using BaF3 cells, showing that JAK3 mutations were activating mutations. Finally, we report a novel constitutively active MPL mutant, MPLT487A, observed in a non-Down syndrome childhood AMKL that induces a myeloproliferative disease in mouse bone marrow transplantation assay.