NG2(+) cells in the adult CNS are a heterogeneous population. The extent to which the subpopulation of NG2(+) cells that function as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) respond to spinal cord injury (SCI) and recapitulate their normal developmental progression remains unclear. We used the CNP-EGFP mouse, in which oligodendrocyte lineage cells express EGFP, to study NG2(+) cells in the normal and injured spinal cord. In white matter of uninjured mice, bipolar EGFP(+)NG2(+) cells and multipolar EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cells were identified. After SCI, EGFP(+)NG2(+) cell proliferation in residual white matter peaked at 3 days post injury (DPI) rostral to the epicenter, while EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cell proliferation peaked at 7 DPI at the epicenter. The expression of transcription factors, Olig2, Sox10, and Sox17, and the basic electrophysiological membrane parameters and potassium current phenotype of the EGFP(+)NG2(+) population after injury were consistent with those of proliferative OPCs during development. EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cells did not express transcription factors involved in oligodendrogenesis. EGFP(+)CC1(+) oligodendrocytes at 6 weeks included cells that incorporated BrdU during the peak of EGFP(+)NG2(+) cell proliferation. EGFP(neg)CC1(+) oligodendrocytes were never observed. Treatment with glial growth factor 2 and fibroblast growth factor 2 enhanced oligodendrogenesis and increased the number of EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cells. Therefore, based on EGFP and transcription factor expression, spatiotemporal proliferation patterns, and response to growth factors, two populations of NG2(+) cells can be identified that react to SCI. The EGFP(+)NG2(+) cells undergo cellular and physiological changes in response to SCI that are similar to those that occur in early postnatal NG2(+) cells during developmental oligodendrogenesis.