Impact of beta-blockers on sleep in patients with mild hypertension: a randomized trial between nebivolol and metoprolol

Adv Ther. 2008 Sep;25(9):871-83. doi: 10.1007/s12325-008-0087-x.


Introduction: Sleep is an innate and essential part of human life. Various aspects of sleep are negatively affected by beta-blockers. We compared the impact of two beta-blockers, metoprolol succinate (extended release) and nebivolol, on sleep quality in patients with stage 1 hypertension.

Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study. Eligible patients were administered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire by a blinded interviewer and were randomized to receive metoprolol (starting dose 25 mg) or nebivolol (starting dose 2.5 mg) once daily for 6 weeks. The first dose was administered before patients left the clinic. Visits were scheduled for 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the initiation of therapy. At the end of the study, patients were readministered the PSQI questionnaire by the same interviewer, as before blinded to treatment allocation.

Results: A total of 22 patients in the nebivolol group and 17 patients in the metoprolol group completed the study and were included in the data analysis (mean age of patients, 40.7 years). At study entry, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and PSQI scores were similar in the two groups. Over 6 weeks of treatment, systolic and diastolic BP normalized in both groups. Global PSQI score improved significantly in patients in the nebivolol group, whereas it worsened in the metoprolol group. The difference in effect of two beta-blockers was statistically significant (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Nebivolol was associated with improved sleep (as assessed by the PSQI), whereas metoprolol was associated with a worsening of sleep characteristics.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / adverse effects*
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Benzopyrans / adverse effects*
  • Benzopyrans / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Ethanolamines / adverse effects*
  • Ethanolamines / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Metoprolol / adverse effects
  • Metoprolol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Metoprolol / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Nebivolol
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sleep / drug effects*


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Benzopyrans
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Ethanolamines
  • Nebivolol
  • Metoprolol