Surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia

Neurosurg Focus. 2008 Sep;25(3):E6. doi: 10.3171/FOC/2008/25/9/E6.


Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are congenital malformations of cortical development that are a frequent cause of refractory epilepsy in both children and adults. With advances in structural and functional neuroimaging, these lesions are increasingly being identified as a cause of intractable epilepsy in patients undergoing surgical management for intractable epilepsy. Comprehensive histological classification of FCDs with the establishment of uniform terminology and reproducible pathological features has aided in our understanding of FCDs as an epilepsy substrate. Complete resection of FCDs and the associated epileptogenic zone can result in a good surgical outcome in the majority of patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Cerebral Cortex / abnormalities
  • Cerebral Cortex / surgery
  • Epilepsy / drug therapy
  • Epilepsy / etiology
  • Epilepsy / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Malformations of Cortical Development / complications
  • Malformations of Cortical Development / drug therapy
  • Malformations of Cortical Development / surgery*
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / methods*
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / trends


  • Anticonvulsants