A standardized injection technique and regimen ensures success and safety of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection for the treatment of gastric fundal varices (with videos)

Gastrointest Endosc. 2008 Sep;68(3):447-54. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2008.02.050.


Background: N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been successfully used for the treatment of bleeding from gastric fundal varices (FV). However, significant rebleeding rates and serious complications including embolism have been reported.

Objective: Our purpose was to analyze the safety and efficacy of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for FV bleeding by using a standardized injection technique and regimen.

Design: Retrospective.

Setting: Two tertiary referral centers.

Patients: A total of 131 patients (91 men/40 women) with FV underwent obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate by a standardized technique and regimen.

Interventions: (1) Dilution of 0.5 mL of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate with 0.8 mL of Lipiodol, (2) limiting the volume of mixture to 1.0 mL per injection to minimize the risk of embolism, (3) repeating intravariceal injections of 1.0 mL each until hemostasis was achieved, (4) obliteration of all tributaries of the FV, (5) repeat endoscopy 4 days after the initial treatment to confirm complete obliteration of all visible varices and repeat N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection if necessary to accomplish complete obliteration.

Main outcome measurements: Immediate hemostasis rate, early rebleeding rate, bleeding-related mortality rate, procedure-related complications, long-term cumulative rebleeding-free rate, and cumulative survival rate.

Results: Initial hemostasis and variceal obliteration were achieved in all patients. The mean number of sessions was 1 (range 1-3). The mean total volume of glue mixture used was 4.0 mL (range 1-13 mL). There was no occurrence of early FV rebleeding, procedure-related complications, or bleeding-related death. The cumulative rebleeding-free rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 94.5%, 89.3%, and 82.9%, respectively.

Conclusion: Obliteration of bleeding FV with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is safe and effective with use of a standardized injection technique and regimen.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Education, Medical, Continuing
  • Egypt
  • Enbucrilate / adverse effects
  • Enbucrilate / therapeutic use*
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / complications
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / diagnosis
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / mortality
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastric Fundus / drug effects
  • Gastric Fundus / pathology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / mortality
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Gastroscopy / methods*
  • Hemostatic Techniques
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intralesional
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Probability
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Video Recording


  • Enbucrilate