CXCL10 and CCL2 serum levels in patients with mixed cryoglobulinaemia and hepatitis C

Dig Liver Dis. 2009 Jan;41(1):42-8. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2008.04.009. Epub 2008 Aug 29.


Background: No study evaluates serum levels of CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in patients with hepatitis C associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia.

Aims: To measure circulating CXCL10 and CCL2 in cryoglobulinaemic patients.

Patients and methods: Serum CXCL10 and CCL2 were assayed in 70 consecutive cryoglobulinaemic patients, and in 2 control groups (1:1, gender- and age-matched) of healthy (controls), or of chronic hepatitis C subjects without cryoglobulinaemia.

Results: Cryoglobulinaemic patients showed higher CXCL10 serum levels than controls (p<0.0001), or hepatitis C patients (p=0.001) (389 +/- 141, 91 +/- 51, 311 +/- 142 pg/ml, respectively). By defining a "high CXCL10" as a value at least 2 S.D. above the mean value of the control group (>193 pg/ml), 79% of cryoglobulinaemic patients, 5% of the controls and 69% of hepatitis C patients had high CXCL10 (p<0.0001). CXCL10 levels were (p<0.01) increased in cryoglobulinaemic patients with active vasculitis, with respect to those without (445+/-108, 339 +/- 161 pg/ml, respectively). Cryoglobulinaemic patients showed significantly higher CCL2 serum level than controls (p<0.01), but not than hepatitis C patients (541 +/- 493, 387 +/- 173 and 451 +/- 281 pg/ml, respectively).

Conclusion: Our study first demonstrates high serum levels of CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in cryoglobulinaemic patients. Circulating CXCL10 is higher overall in cryoglobulinaemic patients with active vasculitis, suggesting a prevalence of the Th1 immune response in this phase.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokine CCL2 / blood*
  • Chemokine CXCL10 / blood*
  • Cryoglobulinemia / blood*
  • Cryoglobulinemia / complications*
  • Female
  • Hepatitis C / blood*
  • Hepatitis C / complications*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Vasculitis / blood
  • Vasculitis / complications


  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemokine CXCL10