Unlike the adjustable gastric banding procedure (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) in humans has an intriguing effect: a rapid and substantial control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed gastric lap-band (GLB) and entero-gastro anastomosis (EGA) procedures in C57Bl6 mice that were fed a high-fat diet. The EGA procedure specifically reduced food intake and increased insulin sensitivity as measured by endogenous glucose production. Intestinal gluconeogenesis increased after the EGA procedure, but not after gastric banding. All EGA effects were abolished in GLUT-2 knockout mice and in mice with portal vein denervation. We thus provide mechanistic evidence that the beneficial effects of the EGA procedure on food intake and glucose homeostasis involve intestinal gluconeogenesis and its detection via a GLUT-2 and hepatoportal sensor pathway.