Biopsy tissue microarray study of Ki-67 expression in untreated, localized prostate cancer managed by active surveillance

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009;12(2):143-7. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2008.47. Epub 2008 Sep 2.


Active surveillance provides a unique opportunity to study biomarkers of prostate cancer behaviour, although only small volumes of tumor tissue are typically available. We have evaluated a technique for constructing tissue microarrays (TMAs) from needle biopsies for assessing immunohistochemical markers in localized prostate cancer managed by active surveillance. TMAs were constructed from diagnostic prostate biopsies for 60 patients with localized prostatic adenocarcinoma in a prospective cohort study of active surveillance. Radical treatment was recommended for a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity greater than 1 ng ml(-1) per year or adverse histology in repeat biopsies, defined as Gleason score > or =4+3 or >50% of cores involved. Sections from the TMAs were stained with H&E, P63/AMACR and Ki-67. Time to radical treatment was analysed with respect to clinical characteristics and Ki-67 LI. At a median follow up of 36 months, 25/60 (42%) patients had received radical treatment. On univariate analysis, PSA density (P=0.001), Gleason score (P=0.001), clinical T stage (P=0.01), Ki-67 LI (P=0.02) and initial PSA (P=0.04) were associated with time to radical treatment. On multivariate analysis, PSA density (P=0.01), Ki-67 LI (P=0.03) and Gleason score (P=0.04) were independent determinants of progression to radical treatment. TMAs constructed from prostate needle biopsies can be used to assess immunohistochemical markers in localized prostate cancer managed by active surveillance. Ki-67 LI merits further study as a possible biomarker of early prostate cancer behaviour.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism*
  • Adenocarcinoma / surgery
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Biopsy, Needle
  • Cohort Studies
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis*
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatectomy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • Racemases and Epimerases / biosynthesis
  • Tissue Array Analysis / methods*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • CKAP4 protein, human
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Racemases and Epimerases
  • alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase