A summary is provided of presentations and discussions at the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007 at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including those exposed during long-duration space travel. Topics discussed included the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage after large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. A summary of conclusions is provided at the end of the report.