Perioperative echocardiography: two-dimensional and three-dimensional applications

Anesthesiol Clin. 2008 Sep;26(3):419-35. doi: 10.1016/j.anclin.2008.03.004.


Perioperative echocardiography is an essential skill for today's cardiac anesthesiologist and a driving force for innovation and accomplishment for the future of the subspecialty. Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3-D TEE) will dominate the future practice of perioperative echocardiography, but transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) will grow in application, as will contrast echocardiography. Hand-held ultrasonongraphs will rival current machines in capabilities and make it possible for TTE to become the stethoscope of the future for cardiac anesthesiologists.

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesiology / methods
  • Anesthesiology / standards*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / standards*
  • Echocardiography / methods
  • Echocardiography / standards*
  • Echocardiography / trends
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional / methods
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional / standards
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional / trends
  • Heart Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Perioperative Care / methods
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic