A sopB deletion mutation enhances the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a heterologous antigen delivered by live attenuated Salmonella enterica vaccines

Infect Immun. 2008 Nov;76(11):5238-46. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00720-08. Epub 2008 Sep 2.


SopB is a virulence factor of Salmonella encoded by SPI-5. Salmonella sopB deletion mutants are impaired in their ability to cause local inflammatory responses and fluid secretion into the intestinal lumen and also can enhance the immunogenicity of a vectored antigen. In this study, we evaluated the effects on immunogenicity and the efficacy of a sopB deletion mutation on two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains with different attenuating mutations expressing a highly antigenic alpha-helical region of the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein PspA from an Asd(+)-balanced lethal plasmid. After oral administration to mice, the two pairs of strains induced high levels of serum antibodies specific for PspA as well as to Salmonella antigens. The levels of antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA were higher in mice immunized with sopB mutants. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay results indicated that the spleen cells from mice immunized with a sopB mutant showed higher interleukin-4 and gamma interferon secretion levels than did the mice immunized with the isogenic sopB(+) strain. The sopB mutants also induced higher numbers of CD4(+) CD44(hi) CD62L(hi) and CD8(+) CD44(hi) CD62L(hi) central memory T cells. Eight weeks after primary oral immunization, mice were challenged with 100 50% lethal doses of virulent S. pneumoniae WU2. Immunization with either of the sopB mutant strains led to increased levels of protection compared to that with the isogenic sopB(+) parent. Together, these results demonstrate that the deletion of sopB leads to an overall enhancement of the immunogenicity and efficacy of recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / immunology
  • Antigens, Bacterial / genetics
  • Antigens, Bacterial / immunology
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Bacterial Proteins / immunology*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / genetics*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / immunology
  • Immunologic Memory
  • Mice
  • Pneumococcal Infections / prevention & control
  • Salmonella enterica / genetics*
  • Salmonella enterica / immunology*
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Virulence Factors


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Cytokines
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Virulence Factors
  • phage shock protein, Bacteria
  • SopB protein, Salmonella