Estimating standardized parameters from generalized linear models

Stat Med. 1991 Jul;10(7):1069-74. doi: 10.1002/sim.4780100707.


Although the traditional unrestricted ('non-parametric') estimators of directly standardized rates and rate differences remain unbiased in sparse data, they tend to suffer from instability (low precision). As a result, many authors have proposed more precise estimators based on parametric models for the rates. This paper provides a general approach for constructing estimators of standardized parameters using generalized linear models, and shows that, in some common special cases, these model-based ('smoothed') estimators can have an exceptionally simple form.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arsenic / adverse effects
  • Case-Control Studies*
  • Humans
  • Linear Models*
  • Metallurgy
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / chemically induced
  • Occupational Diseases / mortality
  • Regression Analysis*
  • Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / mortality
  • Survival Rate


  • Arsenic