Salivary stones and stenosis. A comprehensive classification

Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2008 Sep;109(4):233-6. doi: 10.1016/j.stomax.2008.07.004. Epub 2008 Sep 5.


Introduction: Sialendoscopy and sialoMRI enables diagnosis of salivary gland obstructive pathologies, such as lithiasis, stenosis, and dilatations. Therefore, a classification of these pathologies is needed, allowing large series comparisons, for better diagnosis and treatment of salivary pathologies.

Material and methods: With help from people from the European Sialendoscopy Training Center (ESTC), the results of sialographies, sialoMRI and sialendoscopies, a comprehensive classification of obstructive salivary pathologies is described, based on the absence or presence of lithiasis (L), stenosis (S), and dilatation (D) ("LSD" classification).

Discussion: It appears that a classification of salivary gland obstructive pathologies should be described. We hope it will be widely used and of course criticized to be improved and to compare the results of salivary gland diagnostic methods, such as sialography and sialendoscopy, and also the results and indications for salivary gland therapeutic methods, such as lithotripsy, sialendoscopy, and/or open surgery.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Duplicate Publication

MeSH terms

  • Constriction, Pathologic / classification
  • Dilatation, Pathologic / classification
  • Endoscopy
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Salivary Duct Calculi / classification
  • Salivary Ducts / pathology
  • Salivary Gland Calculi / classification*
  • Salivary Gland Diseases / classification*
  • Sialography