Mitochondria are crucial for normal cell metabolism and maintenance. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a spectrum of human diseases, ranging from rare monogenic to common multifactorial disorders. Important for the understanding of organelle function is the assignment of its constituents, and although over 1,500 proteins are predicted to be involved in mammalian mitochondrial function, so far only about 900 are assigned to mitochondria with reasonable certainty. Continuing efforts are being taken to obtain a complete inventory of the mitochondrial proteome by single protein studies and high-throughput approaches. To be of best value for the scientific community this data needs to be structured, explored, and customized. For this purpose, the MitoP2 database ( http://www.mitop2.de ) was established and is maintained in order to incorporate such data. The central database contains manually evaluated yeast, mouse, and human reference proteins, which show convincing evidence of a mitochondrial location. In addition, entries from genome-wide approaches that suggest protein localization are integrated and serve to compile a combined score for each candidate, which provides a best estimate of mitochondrial localization. Furthermore, it integrates information on the orthology between species, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mouse, human, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Neurospora crassa, thus mutually enhancing evidence across species. In contrast to other known databases, MitoP2 takes into account the reliability by which the protein is estimated as being mitochondrially located, as described herein. Multiple search functions, as well as information on disease causing genes and available mouse models, makes MitoP2 a valuable tool for the genetic investigation of human mitochondrial pathology.