Published studies on the association between cancer and paracoccidioidomycosis consist either isolated cases or clinical data based on hospital cohorts of paracoccidioidomycosis. The frequency of neoplasia in series of > or = 80 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis ranges from 0.16 to 14.1%, mean of 3.96%. There are only two retrospective controlled studies, one of them showing greater incidence of carcinoma in biopsy and necropsy samples of paracoccidioidomycosis (12 cases in 147 patients with the mycosis: 8.2%) than in the necropsies of the control group (320 cases in 7,302 necropsies: 4.9%). In the other, 22,409 autopsies were reviewed and 4,372 cases of cancer were found; of the 85 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, 12 were diagnosed with cancer. No differences were observed in the frequency of malignancies between the group of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (14.1%) and the control group (19.5%). Considering all the reported cases, carcinoma was more frequent than hematological malignancies, and was more often found at the same site or in a neighboring site affected by the mycosis, usually occurring after the diagnosis of the mycosis. Commonly, the basic cause of death was related to secondary infections or neoplasia. Lymphoma was associated with poorly organized rich in fungi granuloma. The clinical course and mortality were related to the cancer evolution or secondary infections and was worse in lymphoid series, metastatic carcinoma or in patients under cytotoxic chemotherapy. Additionally, as in several cases the clinical and histopathological data may mimick neoplasia, the correct diagnosis of both diseases is essential to guarantee an early and safe intervention.