Neutrophils are key players of innate immunity and influence inflammatory and immune reactions through the production of numerous cytokines. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is known to stimulate several neutrophil responses, and recent evidence suggests that neutrophils might represent a source of IL-18. Here, we show that neutrophils constitutively produce both IL-18 and its antagonist, IL-18BP. Cell activation does not affect IL-18BP release but leads to an increased gene expression and secretion of IL-18, a process that depends on NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, endogenous IL-18 feeds back on the neutrophils to augment cytokine generation in lipopolysaccharide-treated cells. Accordingly, exogenous IL-18 can induce the gene expression and release of several inflammatory cytokines in neutrophils, including its own expression. We finally report that IL-18 activates the p38 MAPK, MEK/ERK, and PI3K/Akt pathways in neutrophils. The IKK cascade is also activated by IL-18, resulting in IkappaB-alpha degradation, NF-kappaB activation, and RelA phosphorylation. Accordingly, these pathways contribute to the generation of inflammatory cytokines in IL-18-stimulated neutrophils. By contrast, the phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity of various STAT proteins were not induced by IL-18. Collectively, our results unveil new interactions between IL-18 and neutrophils and further support a role for these cells in influencing both innate and adaptive immunity.