We examined deliveries of twins to identify factors most strongly associated with an increased risk of transfusion. We reviewed the obstetric records of 511 twin deliveries at the Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital from 2003 through 2007. After 18 (3.5%) of these deliveries, transfusions were required. Transfusion was significantly more likely after elective cesarean delivery at a gestational aged of 37 weeks or more (odds ratio, 4.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.87-12.61). Emergency cesarean delivery (at > or =37 weeks' gestation) was not associated with an increased risk of transfusion. The delivery mode of twins should be carefully considered because of the increased risk of transfusion after elective cesarean delivery at a gestational age of 37 weeks or more.