Objective: To study potential role of smoking and alcohol in lymphoid neoplasms (LN).
Methods: A case-control study that included 824 cases and 752 hospital controls aged 18-75 years was conducted. Cases were newly diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's or Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or lymphoproliferative syndrome (LPS). Controls were matched with the cases by gender, age, and center.
Results: Overall, smoking was not related to LN. However, average tobacco consumption tended to be inversely related to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), LPS, and the hairy cell leukemia (HCL) subtype, with a significant negative trend for the latter (OR of 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 for consumptions of <or=10, 11-20, >20 cig/day). An inverse association between 'ever drinking' and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL: OR = 0.5 [0.3-0.8]) and NHL (OR = 0.7 [0.5-1.0]) was evidenced and restricted to the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtype, with significant negative trends. The controls' smoking and drinking habits were similar to those of French population. The results remained unchanged after adjustment for potential confounding factors and when smoking and drinking were both included in the models.
Conclusion: Results are consistent with those of several previous studies and suggest a direct or indirect protective effect of smoking with respect to HCL although based on small numbers. The negative relationship between alcohol consumption and Hodgkin's and NHL, also previously reported, needs further investigations.