Dental caries remains a major public health problem in most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides. The focus in caries research has recently shifted to the development of methodologies for the detection of the early stages of caries lesions and the non-invasive treatment of these lesions. Topical fluoride ions, in the presence of calcium and phosphate ions, promote the formation of fluorapatite in tooth enamel by a process referred to as remineralization. The non-invasive treatment of early caries lesions by remineralization has the potential to be a major advance in the clinical management of the disease. However, for net remineralization to occur adequate levels of calcium and phosphate ions must be available and this process is normally calcium phosphate limited. In recent times three calcium phosphate-based remineralization systems have been developed and are now commercially available: a casein phosphopeptide stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (Recaldent (CPP-ACP), CASRN691364-49-5), an unstabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP or Enamelon) and a bioactive glass containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin). The purpose of this review was to determine the scientific evidence to support a role for these remineralization systems in the non-invasive treatment of early caries lesions. The review has revealed that there is evidence for an anticariogenic efficacy of the Enamelon technology for root caries and for the Recaldent technology in significantly slowing the progression of coronal caries and promoting the regression of lesions in randomized, controlled clinical trials. Hence the calcium phosphate-based remineralization technologies show promise as adjunctive treatments to fluoride therapy in the non-invasive management of early caries lesions.