Coordination of inflammation and metabolism by PPAR and LXR nuclear receptors

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2008 Oct;18(5):461-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2008.07.016. Epub 2008 Sep 7.


Biological systems are integrated networks constantly responding to internal and external stimulators. Understanding the intrinsic response to an imbalanced system provides the opportunity to develop therapeutic approaches to reinstate the natural balanced state. Increasing evidence suggests that members of the nuclear receptor superfamily integrate both inflammatory and metabolic signals to maintain homeostasis in immune cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes. PPAR and LXR are nuclear receptors activated by fatty acid and cholesterol derivatives respectively that control the expression of an array of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Recent studies have uncovered distinct mechanisms for transcriptional regulation of metabolic and inflammatory target genes by PPAR and LXR and have expanded the biology of these receptors to include roles in alternative macrophage activation and adaptive immunity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / genetics
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / metabolism
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / physiology*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear