Purpose: Published clinical information on the safety and efficacy of (131)Cs implants is limited. We provide consensus recommendations for (131)Cs prostate brachytherapy based on experience to date.
Methods and materials: The Cesium Advisory Group (CAG) consists of experienced (131)Cs users. Recommendations are based on three clinical trials, one of which has completed accrual and has been published in the peer reviewed literature, and combined CAG experience of more than 1200 (131)Cs implants.
Results: We recommend using 1.059cGyh(-1)U(-1) as the dose rate constant for the IsoRay source. The prescription for monotherapy implants is 115Gy and when combined with 45-50Gy external beam it is 85Gy. Suggested individual source strength ranges from 1.6 to 2.2U. The release criterion for (131)Cs implants is 6mRh(-1) at 1m. (131)Cs brachytherapy should be performed differently from (125)I and (103)Pd brachytherapy: source placement is further from the urethra and rectum; the prostate V(150) should be < or =45%; sufficient margins may be obtained while limiting source placement to the capsule or close to the capsule. The increased dose rate may cause degradation of postimplant quantifiers due to edema. However, large variability in the magnitude and rate of resolution of edema make determination of the most representative postoperative imaging time impossible. The CAG recommends postimplant imaging on the day of the implant. Recommended postimplant evaluation goals include prostate D(90) greater than the prescription dose; maintaining D(u)(,30)<140% of the prescription dose and keeping V(r)(,100)<0.5cm(3).
Conclusion: It was the consensus of the CAG that optimal (131)Cs implants should be performed differently from those performed with (125)I or (103)Pd. Guidelines have been established to allow for safe and effective delivery of (131)Cs prostate brachytherapy.