Economic evaluation (Italian NHS perspective) modeling (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTSCAN) compared to clinical judgment alone for differentiating essential tremor (ET) from Parkinson's Disease (PD). A 5-year Markov model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT to differentiate ET from PD in patients referred to a movement disorder specialist in Italy. Published data and a double-round, Delphi panel of 12 specialists populated the model. Effectiveness was expressed as the projected Years on potentially beneficial therapy (PBTYs). Costs were expressed in Euros (2005 values). The model suggests that over 5 years, the "current" diagnostic pathway generated an average of 2.3 PBTYs/patient at an estimated cost of 8,864 euros. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT generated an average of 4.1 PBTYs/patient at an estimated cost of 8,422 euros, which represented an additional 1.8 PBTYs at a cost saving of 442 euros/patient (341 euros when discounted at 5%). The estimated cost-effectiveness of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT is under 1,000 euros per PBTY gained when the underlying disease prevalence is high (55-70%), and cost-saving at prevalence under 55%. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT is likely to be regarded as economically advantageous to differentiate ET from PD, increasing time on potentially beneficial therapy at a lower overall cost to the healthcare system.