Peroxisomes are multi-functional organelles that differ in size and abundance depending on the species, cell type, developmental stage, and metabolic and environmental conditions. The PEROXIN11 protein family and the DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN3A (DRP3A) protein have been shown previously to play key roles in peroxisome division in Arabidopsis. To establish a mechanistic model of peroxisome division in plants, we employed forward and reverse genetic approaches to identify more proteins involved in this process. In this study, we identified three new components of the Arabidopsis peroxisome division apparatus: DRP3B, a homolog of DRP3A, and FISSION1A and 1B (FIS1A and 1B), two homologs of the yeast and mammalian FIS1 proteins that mediate the fission of peroxisomes and mitochondria by tethering the DRP proteins to the membrane. DRP3B is partially targeted to peroxisomes and causes defects in peroxisome fission when the gene function is disrupted. drp3A drp3B double mutants display stronger deficiencies than each single mutant parent with respect to peroxisome abundance, seedling establishment and plant growth, suggesting partial functional redundancy between DRP3A and DRP3B. In addition, FIS1A and FIS1B are each dual-targeted to peroxisomes and mitochondria; their mutants show growth inhibition and contain peroxisomes and mitochondria with incomplete fission, enlarged size and reduced number. Our results demonstrate that both DRP3 and FIS1 protein families contribute to peroxisome fission in Arabidopsis, and support the view that DRP and FIS1 orthologs are common components of the peroxisomal and mitochondrial division machineries in diverse eukaryotic species.