LEOPARD syndrome: what are café noir spots?

Pediatr Dermatol. 2008 Jul-Aug;25(4):444-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2008.00734.x.

Abstract

Lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome (multiple lentigines syndrome) is most often characterized by multiple lentigines and cardiac conduction defects. Café noir spot is a term proposed, by analogy to café au lait spots, for the larger and darkly pigmented patches that are frequently observed in patients with this syndrome. Although presumed by some authors to represent lentigines, the histologic features of café noir spots have not been well documented in the literature. Only two previous cases have been reported in which a biopsy of the café noir spots than melanocytic nevi. We describe the histologic characteristics of seven café noir spots in six patients with lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome. Three lesions represented melanocytic nevi (one with dysplastic features), and four were compatible with lentigo simplex. These findings help our understanding of the histologic spectrum of pigmented lesions in lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • LEOPARD Syndrome / pathology*
  • Lentigo / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nevus, Pigmented / pathology
  • Skin / pathology
  • Skin Pigmentation*