The act cluster contains regulatory and antibiotic export genes, direct targets for translational control by the bldA tRNA gene of Streptomyces

Cell. 1991 Aug 23;66(4):769-80. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90120-n.


The actII region, flanked by biosynthetic genes in the 25 kb act cluster of S. coelicolor, consists of four open reading frames, including a transcriptional activator for the biosynthetic genes, and genes controlling antibiotic export. A TTA codon (extremely rare in Streptomyces) is present both in actII-ORF2 (encoding a putative transmembrane export protein) and actII-ORF4 (the transcriptional activator gene). Change of the TTA in ORF4 to TTG reverses the normal interruption of actinorhodin synthesis caused by mutation in the pleiotropic regulatory gene bldA (which encodes the cell's tRNA(Leu)(UUA)). We conclude that initiation of actinorhodin synthesis via the actII-ORF4 product, and the final step in production, antibiotic export, are twin targets via which bldA exerts developmental control of actinorhodin production.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Anthraquinones / metabolism
  • Base Sequence
  • Biological Transport
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Genes, Bacterial*
  • Genes, Regulator*
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligonucleotides / chemistry
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • RNA, Transfer / genetics
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Streptomyces / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Anthraquinones
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Transcription Factors
  • RNA, Transfer
  • actinorhodin

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M60962
  • GENBANK/M64383
  • GENBANK/M64384
  • GENBANK/M64683
  • GENBANK/M73779
  • GENBANK/M80185
  • GENBANK/S44816
  • GENBANK/S44821
  • GENBANK/S56137
  • GENBANK/S56139