Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare hematological malignancy in children. It was performed FISH analysis in 19 pediatric MDS patients to investigate deletions involving the PPARgamma and TP53 genes. Significant losses in the PPARgamma gene and deletions in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 were observed in 17 and 18 cases, respectively. Using quantitative RT-PCR, it was detected PPARgamma transcript downexpression in a subset of these cases. G-banding analysis revealed 17p deletions in a small number of these cases. One MDS therapy-related patient had neither a loss of PPARgamma nor TP53. These data suggest that the PPARgamma and TP53 genes may be candidates for molecular markers in pediatric MDS, and that these potentially recurrent deletions could contribute to the identification of therapeutic approaches in primary pediatric MDS.